1. medical doctor or doctor of osteopathic medicine.
2, 3, 4, 5. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Program Requirements for Graduate Medical Education in Ophthalmology. https://www.acgme.org/Specialties/Overview/pfcatid/13.
American Academy of Ophthalmology Policy Statement: Differences in Education between Ophthalmologists and Optometrists. https://www.aao.org/about/policies/differences-education- optometrists-ophthalmologists.
Medical school: The four-year medical school
curriculum focuses on fundamental principles of medicine and its underlying scientific concepts. It
includes required courses on anatomy, biochemistry, genetics, physiology, microbiology and
immunology, pathology, pharmacology and therapeutics, and preventive medicine, including laboratory.
Medical students participate in two years of patient care rotations through different specialties and gain
direct experience managing patients in all aspects of medicine. In addition, all ophthalmologists must
complete a full year of general medical, pediatric, or surgical internship.
6. American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO). https://abop.org/. Independent of the American Academy
of Ophthalmology and established in 1916, the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) of the
American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) certifies ophthalmologists who have successfully
completed an accredited course of education and training and who successfully pass an oral and written
examination process. The ABMS is recognized as the “gold standard” in physician certification. This
goes beyond the minimum requirements necessary for licensure and provides the public assurance that a
physician has the appropriate knowledge, skills, and experience to deliver optimum care in a specific area
of medicine. http://www.abms.org/
7. Doctor of Optometry. The four-year optometry curriculum includes contact lenses, optics, vision
sciences, sensory processing, vision therapy, practice management, and courses related to basic medical
sciences and eye diseases. Optometry students receive no clinical training managing patients with
different systemic diseases.
8. American Optometric Association Accreditation Council for Optometric Education, Professional
Optometric Degree Standards, revised 2009, Optometry Residency Definition and Standards, Effective
July 1 2009, Accreditation Manual; Professional Optometry Degree Programs, Revised 2009;
Accreditation Manual: Optometric Residency Programs, Revised 2009. http://www.aoa.org/x12707.xml
9. American Optometric Association: Residency Program Opportunities.
Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO) Optometry Residency Match https://natmatch.com/ormatch/